Giáo dục Việt Nam

Thursday, December 1, 2011

Growing Better Rice for a Hungry World

GREEN SUPER RICE. Rice production must increase by about 70 percent over the next two decades. African and Asian rice farmers need better rice varieties.

Growing Better Rice for a Hungry World

The global demand for rice is booming. To keep up with this demand, rice production must increase by about 70 percent over the next two decades. At the same time, too much or too little water, extreme temperatures, and poor soils are threatening rice production. Developing better rice varieties that stand up against environmental and soil stresses can help African and Asian rice farmers - and their families - thrive. Browse more infographics and learn more about our work in agricultural development.



Source: http://www.gatesfoundation.org/infographics/Pages/growing-better-rice-info.aspx

Saturday, June 18, 2011

Green Super Rice and world hunger


GREEN SUPER RICE. Green Super Rice (GSR) is bred to perform well in the toughest conditions where the poorest farmers grow rice. GSR is actually a mix of more than 250 different rice varieties. More types of GSR that combine many of these traits are in the pipeline. GSR researchers had a large number of backcrossed second generation lines (BC2F2) and they adapted to difficult growing conditions such as biotic and abiotic stresses. As reported in the issue of Rice Today. Green Super Rice is already in the hands of national agricultural agencies in key rice-growing countries for testing and development. Some 106 GSR varieties are now ready for seed exchange and germplasm distribution through the International Network for the Genetic Evaluation of Rice





Greener rice
Written by Jauhar Ali and Alaric Francis Santiaguel


Fears of food shortages following the rice crisis in 2007 and 2008 have prompted a dramatic shift in global trade and in economic and food security policies. Nations have put more focus now on agriculture—a situation somewhat reminiscent of the events that led to the Green Revolution.

A cornerstone of the Green Revolution was the new varieties of cereal crops developed through the efforts of Norman Borlaug, the father of the Green Revolution ( see A tribute to Norman Borlaug). One of those varieties is IR8 rice, also known as “miracle rice,” developed 40 years ago at the International Rice Research Institute. When grown with irrigation and nitrogen-rich fertilizers, IR8 produced more grains than traditional varieties. IR8 changed the world food situation according to Tom Hargrove, a former communicator at IRRI. Indeed, the looming famines did not materialize since miracle rice was introduced, as well as other food varieties (see Breeding history).

The high price of a miracle

Modern rice varieties can yield significantly more than traditional rice varieties, but they require more nutrients in order to achieve their maximum yield potential. But, the heavy use of chemical fertilizers can place a toll on the environment. Commercial fertilizer to provide nutrients can be an additional cost to farmers if not used strategically such as through site-specific nutrient management (SSNM).

During the Green Revolution, global use of pesticides rapidly increased to protect crops. But, excessive and indiscriminate pesticide use can adversely affect ecosystems and human health.

Agricultural irrigation, another leg on which the revolution stands, has also come under fire. Many experts believe that the global water supply is dwindling fast. Additional pressure from climate change, population growth, pollution, and higher industrial requirements is also contributing to a possible massive water crisis. (See A dry vision).

An environment-friendly revolution

Can the world survive without the intensified agricultural practices espoused by the Green Revolution?

Green Super Rice (GSR) for the Resource-Poor of Africa and Asia, a collaborative project between IRRI and the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences (CAAS), offers a sustainable way of producing food for the growing population. Funded by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation (BMGF), the project aims to develop rice varieties that retain their stable, sustainable yield potential even when grown with fewer inputs or under unfavorable environmental conditions.

Green super rice

Headed by Zhikang Li, IRRI molecular geneticist who is based at CAAS, the GSR project’s breeding technology radically departs from the original approach of the Green Revolution, in which everything else took a back seat to higher yield.

Because modern varieties have been bred to respond to the best possible field conditions, they do not reach their maximum yield potential when nutrients, pest management, and water are not optimal. For example, IR64, developed at IRRI and released in 1985, became one of the most popular rice varieties in the world due to its high yield. But, this variety is significantly affected by drought. Through the GSR project, plant breeders have developed rice plants that are drought-tolerant but still have the desirable traits of IR64.

After 12 years of rigorous breeding, GSR researchers learned that by subjecting a large number of backcrossed second-generation lines (BC2F2) and their succeeding generations to biotic and abiotic stresses, they could eliminate weak lines and identify promising transgressive segregants, which are lines that exceed the performance range of their parents under extreme conditions.

A new approach to standard breeding technology

In the past, breeders at IRRI used only three recurrent parents, IR64, Teqing, and IR68552-55-3-2, a new plant type variety backcrossed with 205 donor parents. However, the GSR concept, which was well received and expanded in China under the China National Rice Molecular Breeding Network, uses 46 recurrent parents. Crosses were made with 500 donors, resulting in a bigger pool of available genes—each of which has also been submitted for complete genome re-sequencing to further strengthen the molecular breeding efforts of the GSR project.

Doing more with less

Rather than focusing on developing one variety for all, GSR can be custom made to fit any target ecosystem. For example, GSR varieties can grow rapidly to compete strongly with weeds. Because they establish themselves much faster than the weeds, herbicide—a luxury for poor farmers—becomes unnecessary. These weed-tolerant GSR varieties performed well in field trials in Bangladesh and are now undergoing further testing.

Furthermore, the project has also identified drought-tolerant GSR lines with IR64 as the recurrent parent. For example, IR83142-B-19-B, a GSR line, performs better than Sahbhagidhan under drought and zero-input (which means no fertilizers and no pesticides, and only one manual weeding) conditions. (See Making rice less thirsty.)

Re-packaging agriculture. In 2009, field trials conducted in Indonesia, Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, and China showed several GSR varieties with different promising traits. Seeds of 56 GSR varieties with multiple resistance to rice blast, rice planthoppers, and gall midge were distributed to the GSR trial countries for more thorough evaluation.

Some 106 GSR varieties are now ready for seed exchange and germplasm distribution through the International Network for the Genetic Evaluation of Rice. These “finished products” include GSR materials that are drought-tolerant and suitable for rainfed lowlands, and inbreds and hybrids with multiple disease and insect pest resistance. GSR-IRRI also released drought-tolerant, salinity-tolerant, submergence-tolerant, and high-yielding varieties suitable for irrigated conditions.

The GSR project also promotes environment-friendly production technology such as SSNM (see Specific benefits and Management made easy) and integrated crop management (ICM) to go with GSR varieties.

SSNM provides information based on simple observations that enable rice farmers to tailor nutrient management to specific field conditions and optimally supply rice with essential nutrients at the right time (see Balancing fertilizer use and profit). ICM is a crop production system based on a good understanding of the interactions between biology, environment, and land management. It aims to ensure food production that conserves and even enhances natural resources.

Sowing greener alternatives

In recent years, rice scientists have been forced to face the additional challenge of balancing food security with preserving natural resources and protecting the environment. For IRRI, the key is a doubly green revolution: the development and diffusion of conventional environment-friendly agricultural practices and innovative varieties such as GSR. (See The Doubly Green Revolution in Rice and The 2nd Green Revolution.)

“I strongly believe that, through GSR technology, it is possible to realize the highly efficient use of germplasm resources while promoting sustainable agricultural development and protecting the environment for future generations,” Dr. Li said.

Jules Pretty, professor and pro-vice-chancellor of environment and society at the University of Essex in Colchester, England, as well as author of several books on agricultural sustainability, agrees. Productive and sustainable agricultural make the best of crop varieties and their agro- ecological and agronomic management, he said. “This new initiative from IRRI on GSR is welcome as it fits these conditions and needs.”

Source: http://irri.org/knowledge/publications/rice-today/features/features-asia/greener-rice


Green Super Rice and reducing world hunger

For every one billion people added to the world’s population, 100 million tons of rice (paddy) need to be produced more annually –- with less land, less water, and less labor, in more efficient, environmentally-friendly production systems that are more resilient to climate change and also contribute less to greenhouse gas emissions.

Green Super Rice (GSR) is bred to perform well in the toughest conditions where the poorest farmers grow rice. GSR is a step away from reaching farmers thanks to a major project led by the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences and the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI).

278 page proposed plan for the Global Rice Science Partnership, Sept 2010

Green Super Rice is actually a mix of more than 250 different potential rice varieties and hybrids variously adapted to difficult growing conditions such as drought and low inputs, including no pesticide and less fertilizer, and with rapid establishment rates to out-compete weeds, thus reducing the need for herbicides. More types of Green Super Rice that combine many of these traits are in the pipeline

Green Super Rice is already in the hands of national agricultural agencies in key rice-growing countries for testing and development.

The project has also identified drought-tolerant GSR lines with IR64 as the recurrent parent. For example, IR83142-B-19-B, a GSR line, performs better than Sahbhagi dhan under drought and zero-input (which means no fertilizers and no pesticides, and only one manual weeding) conditions.

In recent years, rice scientists have been forced to face the additional challenge of balancing food security with preserving natural resources and protecting the environment. For IRRI, the key is a doubly green revolution: the development and diffusion of conventional environment-friendly agricultural practices and innovative varieties such as GSR.

Insect-Resistant Genetically Modified Rice in China: From Research to Commercialization

Summary of potential key impacts. Based on these preliminary analyses of a subset
of expected GRiSP benefits, the following key impacts are forecast from the GRiSP:
By 2020:
* Expenditures on rice by those under the $1.25 (PPP) poverty line will decline by PPP
* $4.9 billion annually (holding consumption constant).
* Counting those reductions as income gains means that 72.2 million people would be
lifted above the $1.25 poverty line, reducing the global number of poor by 5%.
* As a result of increased availability and reduced prices, 40 million undernourished
people would reach caloric sufficiency in Asia, reducing hunger in the region by 7%.
Approximately 275 million tons of CO2 equivalent emissions will be averted.

By 2035:
* Expenditures on rice by those under the $1.25 (PPP) poverty line would decline by PPP $11.0 billion annually (holding consumption constant).
* Counting those reductions as income gains means that 150 million people would be
lifted above the $1.25 poverty line, reducing the global number of poor by 11%.
* As a result of increased availability and reduced prices, 62 million undernourished
people would reach caloric sufficiency in Asia, reducing hunger in the region by 12%.
* Nearly 1 billion tons of CO2 equivalent emissions will be averted.

By 2020, rice production will consistently meet demand as the world will be able to sustainably supply 85 million additional tons of paddy, leading to price reductions that can enable 40 million hungry people to attain caloric sufficiency.

By 2035, the world will be capable of producing an additional 170 million tons compared with 2010, matching the projected total demand of around 830 million tons of paddy. Africa, where demand growth is highest, will be able to feed itself in terms of rice production. As a result of GRiSP’s contributions to increased supplies and reduced rice prices, at least 60 million undernourished people can afford to reach caloric sufficiency, thus reducing hunger by more than 12% in target regions. A significant proportion of world rice production will better meet local food preferences. Nutritional enhancement will save millions of disability-adjusted life years, formerly lost because of vitamin A, iron, and zinc micronutrient deficiencies.

To achieve this vision of success, GRiSP has three main objectives, aligned with the
CGIAR strategic objectives (food for people, environment for people, and policy for people):

Objective 1: Increase rice productivity and value for the poor in the context of a changing climate through accelerated demand-driven development of improved varieties and other technologies along the value chain (addressed through themes 1, 2, 3, 4, and 6).

Objective 2: To foster more sustainable rice-based production systems that use natural resources more efficiently, are adapted to climate change and are ecologically resilient, and have reduced environmental externalities (addressed through themes 3, 4, and 6).

Objective 3: To improve the efficiency and equity of the rice sector through better and more accessible information, improved agricultural development and research policies, and strengthened delivery mechanisms (addressed through themes 5 and 6).

Source:http://nextbigfuture.com/2011/01/green-super-rice-and-reducing-world.html

GREEN SUPER RICE

Saturday, June 11, 2011

GRiSP is Global Rice Science Partnership

GreenSuperRice: Global Rice Science Partnership (GRiSP) is a network of six international centers with some 900 research, development and other partners worldwide. GRiSP has three main objectives, aligned with the CGIAR strategic objectives (food for people, environment for people, and policy for people)



Green Super Rice

Tuesday, June 7, 2011

Mapping rice areas in South Asia

Green super rice. Dr. Gumma is a postdoctoral fellow with IRRI’s Geographic Information Systems (GIS). Dr. Nelson is a geographer in GIS. Dr. Thenkabail is a research geographer in the U.S. Geological Survey. Dr. Singh works as a consultant for the STRASA project. Ms. Garcia is an associate graphic designer, while Ms. Maunahan and Ms. Villano are researchers at GIS, SSD. They had written about "mapping rice areas in South Asia". South Asia has almost 40% of the world's harvested rice areas, has 1.1 billion people and rice provides around 30% of the calories.


Mapping rice areas in South Asia
by Murali Krishna Gumma, Andrew Nelson, Prasad S. Thenkabail,
Amarendra N. Singh, Cornelia Garcia, Aileen Maunahan, and Lorena Villano


Almost 40% of the world’s harvested rice areas are in South Asia―home to 1.1 billion people (74% of the population) that survive on less than US$2.00 per day and 600 million people (40% of the population) that live on less than $1.25 a day. Furthermore, rice provides around 30% of the calories consumed by 1.48 billion South Asians. These are just some of the statistics that reveal how rice farming is important for the region.

The poorest rice farmers produce their crop under rainfed conditions, in which drought, submergence, and poor soils drastically reduce yields and harm farmers’ livelihoods. Recent advances in genetics and breeding have made the development of stress-tolerant rice varieties feasible and their cultivation can substantially contribute to poverty alleviation, especially in rainfed environments. If we can locate exactly where rice is cultivated and under what conditions, we will be able to identify the regions where new stress-tolerant rice varieties—being developed and promoted through the Stress-Tolerant Rice for Poor Farmers in Africa and South Asia (STRASA) and Green Super Rice (GSR) projects—will have maximum impacts on the livelihoods of resource-poor farmers.

In collaboration with the STRASA and GSR projects, we have developed a series of maps that accurately display the location and types of rice production in agroecosystems across six countries in South Asia.

We started with an extensive field survey across as many different rice systems as possible to describe the on- the-ground conditions in terms of the number of crops per season and whether the crops are rainfed or irrigated. We then acquired remotely sensed images of the entire region with a spatial resolution of around 20 hectares at regular intervals throughout the season. This time series of images was used to characterize the phenology―that is, the health of the plant in relation to its climatic conditions—at our survey sites to provide us with a set of “signatures” for the different rice agroecosystems.

Then, in connection with various remote-sensing analyses, we compared these signatures to the time series of vegetation vigor in each and every 20-hectare pixel across South Asia to create a rice map for the wet season (also known as the kharif, aman, maha, autumn, or fall season) for all South Asia. A subset of the survey data is kept back and used to validate and assess how accurate the map is. The mapped rice area is then compared against agricultural statistics and expert knowledge to confirm its reliability. We tested this methodology on the 2000-01 season since this was the most recent “good year” for rice cultivation in South Asia as no widespread droughts or flood events occurred during that season.

Since the map has high accuracy (over 80% accuracy and a 94% agreement with district-level rice statistics), this encouraged us to apply the method to other years. Here, we present the map for the 2009-10 wet season, which we believe to be the most up-to-date and detailed map of rice cultivation areas in South Asia.

The map shows 11 classes of rice cultivation covering 50.6 million 2 hectares. The two major types are irrigated and rainfed. The irrigate classes account for 24.2 million hectares and are further described by their irrigation type, such as surface- water irrigation (from tanks, rivers, or reservoirs), groundwater irrigation (from wells or springs), and the cropping system, such as single rice, rice-rice, or rice–other crop systems. The rainfed classes account for 26.4 million hectares and include areas that have some occasional supplemental irrigation from groundwater sources as well as upland/ dryland rice and deepwater rice areas as found in eastern Bangladesh.

The map shows a complex pattern, in terms of both where and how rice is cultivated. As expected, the dominant rice areas are in northern and eastern India, Bangladesh, the river systems of Pakistan, and the southern lowlands of Nepal. However, rice cultivation occurs in almost every region where there is arable land and a suitable climate. The variation in rice systems is equally diverse. There are some dominant trends such as the irrigated rice–other crops across northern India, the rice-rice areas east of Hyderabad in Andhra Pradesh, and the rainfed areas stretching between Kolkata and Hyderabad. But, there are also areas such as Bangladesh, the far northeast of India, southern India, and Sri Lanka where no single system dominates and several systems lie within close proximity.

This map is a useful output in itself, but it also forms the basis for further research. By producing rice area maps for different years, we can observe trends in rice area as producers move from one crop to another (e.g., from rice to sugarcane) or as land is converted to other uses. Examples of agricultural expansion include areas where stress- tolerant rice varieties permit farmers to cultivate land that they could not use before. Conversely, agricultural land can be lost when pressure to convert arable land to other uses, particularly for urban expansion and development, is high. We also use these maps to identify the extent, duration, and frequency of submergence and drought events during the growing season. When these maps are fully validated, they will be made available on the International Rice Research Institute’s Web site as a valuable resource for mapping and monitoring the trends in rice cultivation across Asia.

Wednesday, May 18, 2011

Review and prospect of transgenic rice research

GreenSuperRice. Dr. Qifa Zhang had written an article about "review and prospect of transgenic rice research" in 2009. We can know more about rice transformation. A ideal drought tolerence rice variety should have high yield and good quality when water is adequate.

Strategies for developing Green Super Rice

GreenSuperRice. Dr. Qifa Zhang (2007) had written about strategies for developing Green Super Rice such as identification of genes for drought resistance and development of drought resistant rice ; identification of genes for quality improvement, identification of genes for yield trails...Presently, a large effort will be required to understand to possible impact of the climate change on rice genetic improvement, which will then be translated as new target traits for GSR.

Monday, May 9, 2011

Scientists Develop Green Super Rice

Green Super Rice: Voanews had a focus on "Green Super Rice project". "Green" meaning enviromentally friendly because it will grow as much or more grain with fewer inputs; and "super" because it will be better able to tolerance drought, flooding, salty water, insect pests and more (IRRI).

Researchers are working to develop rice varieties which require much less water, fertilizer and pesticide than modern types of rice demand.

Rice feeds roughly three billion people in Asia alone, and is a staple food around the world. Modern rice plant varieties yield double or triple the amount of grain possible before the 1960s.

When the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) first introduced these varieties, they were called "miracle rice" because they helped ward off famine is Asia. But they have some major shortcomings.

"When farmers don't have these fertilizers, they fail them miserably," says Jauhar Ali, an IRRI senior scientist.

Petrochemical-based fertilizers are costly and becoming more so. The same is true of the pesticides farmers use to control insects and weeds. Also, the pollution they cause is ruining aquatic ecosystems in many parts of the world.

In addition, they need to be irrigated. But experts say water supplies are increasingly challenged by urbanization and climate change.

Sustainability concerns growing

These were secondary concerns as famine loomed in the 1960s, according to Colorado State University rice researcher Jan Leach.

"[Back then, they said], 'OK, we just need more yield. We need to produce more rice,'" she says. "Now we can step back and say, 'OK, now we know how to get more rice. Now let's think about how to get more rice and be sustainable.'"

Today, IRRI is working on what it calls Green Super Rice - "green" meaning environmentally friendly - because it will grow as much or more grain with fewer inputs; and "super" because it will be better able to tolerate drought, flooding, salty water, insect pests and more.

"All this will be combined into one," Ali says, "Plus disease resistance also. And not only that. We will do it in what they like to eat."

Huge program

If it sounds like a big job, that's because it is. Each one of those traits can be controlled by multiple genes. Combining all the right genes into one plant - without using genetic engineering - takes a whole lot of plant breeding, says Anna McClung, head of a major U.S. government rice breeding center.

"The magnitude of what they're doing is really quite unique and tremendous," she says. "We're talking 10-fold more than a regular program would do. Maybe 100-fold more."

The project spans 16 countries. IRRI and the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences have spent the last 12 years mating hundreds of different varieties from the world's largest rice collection.

Hidden diversity

Colorado State's Jan Leach says with that many varieties to choose from, researchers can find valuable traits hidden in the rice genome.

"Many of the traits are present, but they are not turned on until you get them into the right genetic background, or sometimes in the right environment," she says.

For example, some of the genes that help a new variety survive prolonged periods underwater came from a variety that would drown in those conditions. The genes were there, they were just switched off. Ironically, that plant is fairly good at surviving the opposite extreme: drought.

Several first-generation Green Super Rice varieties should be available to farmers in eight target countries in Asia and eight in Africa in about two years. Meanwhile, researchers continue stacking more traits into new varieties to help farmers produce more with less, in order to feed a growing world.

Steve Baragona | Washington, D.C.

Source: http://www.voanews.com/english/news/africa/Scientists-Develop-Green-Super-Rice-114938889.html